Previous Vaccines Based on Vaccinia Virus

More than 52,000 cases have been confirmed in more than 90 countries and territories since a novel monkeypox virus infection was detected in humans in May 2022.

The rapid spread of the virus has sparked global concern. And on July 23 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2022 monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency of international concern. The underlying determinants of the MPXV-2022 outbreak remain unclear. But the new monkeypox virus belongs to the West African MPXV clade (MPXV-WA) based on phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences reported on GISAID in at least 15 countries.

Introduction

There are three main types of VACV-based vaccines in the past. First-generation vaccines included live vaccinia viruses. Such as Dryvax, which were used to eradicate smallpox in the last century. During the African monkeypox outbreak in the 1980s. First-generation VACV-based vaccines were reported to provide 85% protection against MPXV in humans. While the WHO and some countries maintain stocks of these vaccines. Their use against MPXV is not recommended for safety reasons. ACAM2000 is a second-generation vaccine, also based on live VACV.  But with a better safety profile than the first-generation vaccine. The vaccine is currently available in the United States for use against monkeypox under expanded access to investigational new drug applications. The third-generation vaccine, Bavarian Nordic Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA-BN), is currently recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S.

This year’s outbreak of the MPXV-2022 virus carries different genetic variants that have the potential to influence vaccine-induced immune recognition. A few weeks after the emergence of the new strain. A genomic study of MPXV-2022 was led by Professor Matthew MCKAY. A researcher at the Center for Future Research at the University of Melbourne, and Professor Ahmed Abdul QUADEER. An assistant researcher at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, to determine whether the genetic mutations observed in MPXV-2022 may affect the VACV-vaccine-induced immune response to monkeypox. The results were published in Virus.

Content

Professor MCKAY is also an adjunct professor at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. “Vaccines based on VACV have previously shown high efficacy against the monkeypox virus. And are an important epidemic prevention and control measure,” he said. “However, given that MPXV-2022 is a new monkeypox virus. We still lack scientific data to determine how the human immune response elicited by VACV-based vaccines recognizes MPXV-2022 and provides protection against disease.”

 

Using genomic and immunological data, the team assessed genetic similarity and differences between VACVs. And MPXV-2022, particularly within protein regions targeted by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies or T cells.

 

Professor McKay said: “Although we found a small number of different mutations with potential immunological effects in MPXV-2022. Our study more broadly showed that VACV and MPXV-2022 are highly similar in genes in immune system recognition regions targeted by vaccination.” “While sequencing and immunological data provide evidence to predict robust immune responses, clinical studies are needed to determine the exact efficacy of these vaccines against MPXV-2022.”

 

Professor Quadeer said the findings were reassuring. “According to our analysis, we expect that VACV-based vaccines generate immune responses that recognize MPXV-2022 well, as in the past for monkeypox viruses.” “Our data further support the use of the globally recommended VACV vaccine against MPXV-2022.”

 

The World Health Organization recommends primary prevention vaccines against the new monkeypox virus for individuals at high risk of contact, also known as pre-contact prophylaxis.

 

Collected by Creative BioMart, a provider of quality recombinant proteins. It has successfully developed various recombinant proteins related to Monkeypox viruses to help scientific researchers.

Symptoms of Monkeypox

The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder than smallpox. The incubation period ranges from 5 to 21 days, after which the initial symptoms appear. These include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Backache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Chills

A rash then develops, often beginning on the face before spreading to other parts of the body. The rash progresses to form fluid-filled blisters that eventually crust over and fall off, leaving a scar. The rash can last for 2 to 4 weeks.

Prevention Measures

There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine for monkeypox, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include:

  • Avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids
  • Washing hands regularly with soap and water
  • Wearing protective clothing such as gloves and masks when handling animals
  • Quarantining infected individuals
  • Isolating suspected cases
  • Encouraging vaccination against smallpox, which can reduce the risk of severe monkeypox.

FAQs

Q: Can monkeypox be transmitted through food?

A: No, monkeypox is not transmitted through food. It is mainly transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Q: How can I prevent monkeypox?

A: You can prevent monkeypox by avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, washing hands regularly with soap and water, wearing protective clothing such as gloves and masks when handling animals, quarantining infected individuals, isolating suspected cases, and encouraging vaccination against smallpox.

Q: Is there a cure for monkeypox?

A: There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine for monkeypox, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms.

Conclusion

The 2022 monkeypox outbreak has caused global concern, with over 52,000 confirmed cases reported in more than 90 countries and territories. The virus is mainly transmitted from animals to humans, but person-to-person transmission is possible. The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder than smallpox, and there is currently no specific treatment or vaccine for the disease. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, washing hands regularly with soap and water, wearing protective clothing when handling animals, and encouraging vaccination against smallpox.

Source from Creative BioMart

Creative BioMart started from a small supplier with the development and production of recombinant protein products. After years of development and growth, we currently have over 100,000 protein products. In addition, we have also expanded a series of related products such as native proteins, cell/tissue lysates, chromatography, lectins, and detection kits.

In response to customers’ needs, Creative BioMart continuously launches popular categories such as cytokines, PROTAC targets, GPCRs, labeled proteins, full length proteins, virus-related proteins, CAR-T cell targets, biomarkers, CD antigens, etc. In addition, we offer therapeutic proteins, diagnostic proteins, and GMP proteins in accordance with the demands of industrial customers.

 

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